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The significance of automation and robots in all manufacturing industries continues to grow. Industrial robots have replaced human beings in the wide array of industries. Robots out perform humans in jobs that want precision, speed, endurance and reliability. Robots safely perform dirty and dangerous jobs. Traditional manufacturing robotic applications include material handling (pick and put), assembling, painting, welding, packaging, palletizing, product inspection and testing. Industrial robots are utilized inside a diverse variety of industries including automotive, electronics, medical, food production, biotech, pharmaceutical and machinery.

The ISO meaning of a manipulating industrial robot is “an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator”. In line with the definition it can be fixed set up or mobile to be used in industrial automation applications. These industrial robots are programmable in 3 or more axes. They’re multi-functional devices that can be custom-built and programmed to execute a number of operations.

The most important advantages of industrial robots is they could be developed to suit industry specific requirements and can work continuously for a long time, consistently meeting high manufacturing quality standards. Auto lifespan of the industrial robot is approximately 12-16 years. Because of their persistent accuracy industrial robots are becoming an essential part of manufacturing.

Industrial robots are classified into different categories determined by their mechanical structure. The major groups of industrial robots are:

Gantry (Cartesian) Robot: They are stationary robots having three portions of motion. They work from an overhead grid using a rectangular work envelope. They may be mainly employed to perform ‘pick and place’ actions. Gantry robots have all their axes higher than the work which makes them also suitable for dispensing applications.
SCARA Robots: (Selectively Compliant Articulated Robot Arm) These robots have 4 axes to move. They move in the x-y-z coordinated circular work envelope. They are utilised for factory automation requiring pick and set work, application and assembly operations and handling machine tools.
Articulated robots: An articulated robot has rotary joints. It can have from two to 10 or higher interactive joints. Articulated robots are well suited to welding, painting and assembly.

Basic industrial robot designs might be customized by building different peripherals. End effectors, optical systems, and motion controllers are necessary add-ons. End effectors include the end-of-arm-tooling (EOAT) attached with robotic arms. Grippers or wrenches which are utilized to move or assemble parts are types of end effectors. End effectors are designed and utilized to sense and connect to the external environment. The conclusion effectors’ design is determined by the application requirements with the specific industry. Machine Vision systems are robotic optical systems. They are built-on digital input/output devices and computer networks employed to control other manufacturing equipment like robotic arms. Machine vision can be used for that inspection of product which such as semiconductor chips. Motion controllers are used to move robots and position stages smoothly and accurately with sub-micron repeatability.

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